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Under Hatch-Waxman cardiovascular disease better health channel purchase propranolol with visa, competition from generic drugs has substantially reduced prescription drug prices and overall prescription drug expenditures coronary heart calcium score buy propranolol 40 mg low cost, increased access to capillaries medical definition purchase propranolol 40mg without prescription 3 therapeutic drugs for more Americans, and hastened the pace of innovation. In recent years, however, several court decisions have permitted “pay-for-delay settlements” that have reduced the procompetitive aspects of the Hatch-Waxman Act. Hatch-Waxman does not require generic applicants to duplicate the clinical testing of drugs already proven safe and effective. To be approved under Hatch-Waxman, the applicant must show that its generic drug product is “bioequivalent” to (basically, the same as) the branded drug product. A bioequivalence showing is much less expensive than the clinical testing required for a branded drug product. Because the generic drug is “bioequivalent” to the branded drug, it can be safely substituted for the branded drug and expected to be as effective as the branded drug. To take advantage of generic competition, states have laws that allow pharmacists automatically to substitute a generic for a branded drug, unless a doctor has indicated otherwise. To answer these questions, the Commission studied how competition between 4 See How Pay-for-Delay Settlements Make Consumers and the Federal Government Pay More for Much Needed Drugs: Hearing Before the H. The Commission brings substantial expertise to examining likely models of competition 7 and likely competitive effects from particular regulatory schemes. To assist in its study of the issues, the Commission solicited two rounds of public comments, conducted a public roundtable discussion on November 21, 2008, and accepted additional analysis and comments through May 2009. This report analyzes and synthesizes the Roundtable discussion, the comments received, and relevant economic literature to assess these issues. These amounts differ substantially from the product development costs for small-molecule generic drugs, which typically take three to five years to develop and cost between $1 and $5 million. The Commission also conducted a detailed empirical study of the experience during the 1993-2001 under the Hatch Waxman Act’s procedures designed to facilitate entry of generic drugs. See Assessing the Impact of a Safe and Equitable Biosimilar Policy in the United States Hearing Before H. In small-molecule drug markets, automatic substitution erodes a branded manufacturers’ market share quickly once the first generic product enters the market. These drugs, which are primarily injected or infused, are combined with ancillary medical services and products that require specialty training for proper handling and administration. Because most biologic products are delivered to patients in clinics, hospitals, doctor’s offices, or other medically supervised settings, shifting to another biologic product is typically more costly because it requires restocking of inventory and retraining of nurses and healthcare providers. Biologic drug products are typically delivered to patients by healthcare providers as part of medical treatments. Although not as steep a discount as small-molecule generic drugs, a 10 to 30 percent discount on a $48,000 drug product represents substantial consumer savings. Pioneer manufacturers are expected to respond and offer competitive discounts to maintain market share. Brand-to-brand competition among biologics has developed without any special legislative incentives, but rather through reliance on the patent system and market-based pricing. Patent protection enables biotechnology firms to increase their expected profits from investments 9 in R&D, thus fostering innovation that would not occur without patents’ exclusionary rights. Market-based pricing allows biologic drug firms to charge prices that reflect the value of the drugs to consumers and thus assists firms not only in recouping their substantial investments in biologic drugs, but also in receiving accurate market signals about the value of developing particular biologic drugs. Market experience shows that pioneer pharmaceutical and biologic products already compete against other branded pharmaceutical and biologic entrants, and this competition benefits consumers. Currently, pioneer or first-in-class branded products engage in a race with 10 other branded competitors to bring products to market. By contrast, the costs of restricting competition tend to be spread broadly across a large number of consumers, each of whom suffers a comparatively modest penalty compared to the relatively substantial gain realized by 11 incumbent producers. The phenomenon of highly focused benefits and broadly distributed costs gives firms a greater incentive to organize political resources to restrict competition. A Twelve to Fourteen-Year Exclusivity Period is Unnecessary to Promote Innovation by Pioneer Biologic Drug Manufacturers. In addition, there is very little data to suggest that biologic drugs under development are likely to be unpatentable. Pioneer biologic drugs are covered by more and varied patents, including manufacturing and technology platform patents, than small-molecule branded products. Moreover, there is no evidence that patents claiming a biologic drug product have been designed around more frequently than those claiming small-molecule products.
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For the frst part of this investigation braunwald heart disease 5th edition purchase genuine propranolol on line, you and your classmates will perform one round of artifcial selection on a population of Wisconsin Fast Plants coronary heart unit generic propranolol 40mg on line. First cardiovascular disease in women purchase propranolol 80mg overnight delivery, you will identify and quantify several traits that vary in the population and that you can quantify easily. You will then perform artifcial selection by cross-pollinating only selected plants. You’ll collect the seeds, plant them, and then sample the second-generation population and see if it is diferent from the previous one. Your results will generate questions, and you then will have a chance to test your own ideas about how selection works. Like natural selection, artifcial selection requires variation in the population under selection. To conduct artifcial selection, humans decide on a specifc trait of a plant or animal to enhance or diminish and then select which individuals with that desired trait will breed, producing the next generation and the next population. Lighting: light box systems (grow lights) traits, green/light green leaves and with anthocyanin [purple stems] and without. Other seed stocks, such as or water bottles standard Fast Plant seeds, work as well. Go to the Wisconsin Fast Plants website and fnd the instructions for converting small soda bottles into planting containers fastplants. Feed mason twine through a cutting along the bottom of the bottle small hole in the lid. Place the reservoirs — with the soil gently until water drips from fertilizer water, seeds on the surface of the wicks. Then fll the reservoirs with the soil, and a light layer of vermiculite the dilute fertilizer solution. Step 2 Each day, check your plants and make sure that the reservoirs are full, especially on Fridays. Look for variation in the plants you are growing and describe any you see in your notebook. Step 3 When the plants are about 7 to 12 days old (Figure 7), the class needs to choose 1–2 variable traits for artifcial selection. You want a trait that varies between plants in a single bottle but also varies between containers. The trait should not be something that is Yes or No, but rather something that varies within a range. Tat is, look for traits that you can score on a continuum (length, width, number, and so on). If you and your classmates cannot identify a trait on your own, your teacher will provide additional guidance. Step 5 In your lab notebook, compile a list of all the possible traits your class identifed. Calculate appropriate descriptive statistics for the class data for the frst generation: mean, median, range, standard deviation, etc. Create a histogram that shows the frequency distribution of the trait that you have selected. Directional selection tends to move the variability of a trait in one direction or the other (increase or decrease the trait in the next population). Find the top (or bottom) 10% of plants with that trait in the entire class’s population. Using scissors, cut of the tops of the remaining plants in your container (those not in the top 10%). Step 7 Just as you did in Step 5, construct a new histogram and calculate descriptive statistics for the selected population of plants. Once you have fnished, isolate these selected plants from the rest of the population.
Out of the blue cardiovascular heart failure order propranolol 80mg with amex, two months after a double date blood vessels relaxers order discount propranolol online, Ken called her arteries from aorta cheap 40 mg propranolol with mastercard, nervously reminded her who he was and asked her out. He was shy but [to compensate for it] he would go overboard, acting too aggressive. Roberta might well have decided against this insecure, pushy boy, but one day Ken opened up to her. He knew from reading the want ads that there were a lot more jobs in computer programming than there were in physics, so he figured, just like it said on the matchbook covers, that he would find a career for himself in electronic data processing. His would-be colleagues in the business computing field had little of the hands-on hunger that drove the class of Altair graduates who hacked hardware. In the early 1970s the business computer field that Ken was entering was considered the creepiest in America. It was a joke, an occupation where meek little moles did things who knows what those things were? If Ken and Roberta had been part of a wide circle of friends, they might have had to confront that stereotype, which Ken did not resemble in the least. But Ken and Roberta did not bother to put down roots or establish close friendships. Later, he would jauntily say, "I guess greed would summarize me better than anything. Instead of cleanly breaking with the previous employer, Ken tried to keep on the payroll, in consultant mode. He would claim to know computer languages and operating systems he knew nothing about, reading a book about the subject hours before a job interview and bullshitting his way into the position. No matter where he worked, in any number of nameless service companies in the yawning valley above Los Angeles, Ken Williams did not meet one person who deserved an iota of his respect. But Ken, confident that the stupidity of his colleagues was dwarfed only by the astounding compliance of the Dumb Beast whom he could feed and befriend with his programming skills, would work three days straight, forgetting to even stop for a meal, until the Dumb Beast was back on the job. Ken Williams, hero of the day, tamer of the Dumb Beast, would go home, sleep for a day and a half, then return to work, ready for another marathon. Ken was rising at quantum speed Roberta figured they moved to various locations in the L. They felt like loners and misfits, usually the only white-collar family in a blue-collar neighborhood. As he gained proficiency in his profession, he began to respect it more, see how it could approach art. There were layers of expertise that were way beyond what Williams had previously come to assume. A programming pantheon did exist, almost like some sort of old-time philosophical brotherhood. Ken had gotten a taste of this more exotic realm when he fast-talked his way into a job as systems programmer for Bekins Moving and Storage. He would experiment with three or four languages that had nothing to do with his job, fascinated with the techniques and mind-frames required with each language. And maybe for the first time Ken Williams was being drawn to the process of computing more than to the goal of completing a task. As a consequence of his sustained interest, Ken remained at Bekins longer than at most of his other employers: a year and a half. It was time well spent, since his next job presented him with an even greater challenge, as well as contacts and ideas which would soon enable him to act out his wildest fantasies. It was one of a number of firms that sprang up in the mid sixties to take advantage of a gap in the mainframe computer software field. More and more big companies and government agencies were getting computers, and almost none of the software that the behemoth computer companies supplied could artfully execute the tasks the computers were supposed to perform. So each company had to hire its own programming staff, or rely on highly paid consultants who invariably would disappear just when the system crashed and valuable data came out looking like Russian. A new team of programmers or consultants would then come out to untangle the mess, and the process would repeat itself: starting from scratch, the new team would have to reinvent the wheel.
However heart disease brochure buy propranolol with a visa, in the long term cardiovascular disease risk factors that cannot be changed order propranolol canada, purely defensive manoeuvring will not assure the security of the state 5 blood vessels in the body order propranolol online. A nation can only be assured of complete security after achieving victory over the adversary. Here the term victory is used to indicate the achievement of the grand strategic objectives. It is necessary to transform from the defensive to the ofensive in order to achieve victory and thereby secure the nation. A commander therefore needs to be skilled in defence and capable of transitioning at the appropriate time from the defensive to adopt and execute an ofensive strategy that will ensure certain victory. It is necessary to consolidate the defensive position to one of invulnerability wherein the adversary is denied any advantage and only then start to pursue ofensive strategies. A comprehensive ofensive strategy—demonstrated to potential adversaries in no uncertain manner—is the foundation for long-term security. It is always advantageous to carry the battle to the adversary rather than be reactive to their initiatives in the defensive mould. Terefore, even a defensive strategy should incorporate the concept of initial counterofensive action, followed by the implementation of a fully ofensive strategy. The ofensive would obviously be a long-term strategy as opposed to the counterofensive being the secondary reaction to an immediate threat or enemy ofensive that has been thwarted. The key to understanding and designing strategies for both 102 Planning and Leadership defence and ofence is impenetrability. The implementation of either is determined by the comparative balance of strengths between the opposing forces. Only a commander who clearly understands this combination of impenetrability and balance of strengths will be able to conserve the resources and employ them at the opportune moment optimally. A skilled commander will be able to distinguish the limits of what can be achieved through efective control and skilfully tailor expectations dependent on the context. In contemporary confict situations, this stanza indicates the requirement for realistic analysis of own resources, alliances and force preparedness vis-à-vis those of the adversary. Tere is a clearly discernible undercurrent of deterrence in Sun Tzu’s evaluation of when to adopt defensive or ofensive strategies. Air power is inherently an ofensive capability, even when employed within a broader defensive strategy. This is a cardinal principle in the efective employment of air power that should not be lost sight of under any circumstances. The ofensive nature of air power must percolate into the operational and tactical planning processes to optimise its efectiveness. Air power is ideally suited to carrying out limited counterofensive manoeuvres even when the nation is pursuing a defensive strategy at the start of an adversary-initiated confict. The air power characteristics of reach, penetration, lethality, precision and proportionality are extremely valuable in transitioning from the defensive and thereafter pursuing an ofensive strategy in a campaign. In this stanza Sun Tzu grades the requirements for national security implicitly as starting from deterrence, and explicitly from efective defence transitioning to ofensive action aimed at victory, all the while emphasising the need for skill at the command level. Efcient and demonstrated air power capability is a deterrent force, it is efective when employed correctly within a defensive strategy and is the capability that is easiest to transition to the ofensive when required. The optimum employment of air power—including rapid transition from the defensive to ofensive when required—is underpinned by the professional mastery of commanders at all levels and the technical mastery of the operators at the tactical level. Only a force with adequate resources, carefully employed by professionally competent commanders, will have the capabilities necessary to create the efects needed to achieve victory. Air power’s inherent ofensive nature must percolate the planning process at all levels Air power’s characteristics of reach, penetration, lethality, precision and proportionality are ideally suited to pursue an ofensive strategy Efectiveness in the application of air power is underpinned by the professional mastery of commanders 103 The Art of Air Power Efortless Triumph – Operational Control To foresee triumph When it is obvious to the multitudes, Is no true skill. To lift an autumn leaf—is not great strength; To see the sun and moon—is not great perception; To hear a thunderclap—is not acute hearing. To foresee a victory which an ordinary man can foresee is not the acme of excellence. Neither is it to triumph in battle, for to lift an autumn leaf requires no great strength, to distinguish between the sun and the moon is no test of perception, and to hear the thunderclap is no indication of acute hearing. Tose sophisticated at strategy vanquish those who are easily vanquished, achieving easy triumph. Tere are various skills that must be mastered by the commander in order to retain the force’s competitive edge.
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