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Othello (1604) is the classic study in racial stereotyping with tragic consequences symptoms 9 days post ovulation buy trecator sc master card. Styled as “The Moor of Venice symptoms you are pregnant trecator sc 250mg on line,” the hero is a double cultural outsider treatment water on the knee cheap trecator sc 250mg overnight delivery, possibly based on Leo Africanus, a scholarly North African Arab whose History and Description of Africa Shakespeare evidently drew on. Like the Prince of Morocco, Othello is open about coming from an alien and barbarous locale, peopled by “the Cannibals that each other eat, / the anthropophagi” (I iii 143–44). These stereotypes and myths have been the subject of research by Hall (1995), Loomba (2002), Hadfield (2003), and others. This “otherness” attracts Desdemona, but is exploited cynically and destructively by the “demi-devil” Iago, who dismisses the union as that between “an erring barbarian and a supersubtle Venetian” (I iii 362–63). Iago consis tently uses and even thinks in stereotypes, claiming “these Moors are changeable in their wills” (I iii 350), then conceding that “the Moor. He rouses Brabantio, Desdemona’s father, in crude agricultural terms: “an old black ram is tupping your white ewe” (I i 88–89). The special horror of Othello’s tragedy is that as Iago torments him with the suspicion of his wife’s infidelity, he becomes so enraged that he starts to conform to the stereotype of the barbarian and the savage. Samuel Taylor Coleridge put the case with amazing crudity in 1848: “A similar error has turned Othello into a rank, wooly-pated, thick-lipped nigger” (Essays I, 64). Likewise, the theme of witchcraft and magic returns disturbingly, from Brabantio’s original accusations (I ii 65, I iii 64), leading to Othello’s denial (I iii 169), but resurfacing in the nature of the handkerchief, the crucial evidence. Originally an innocent love token, it becomes an object of sorcery: “’This true, there’s magic in the web of it. Othello speaks of Desdemona’s skin as “whiter than snow / And smooth as monumental alabaster” (V ii 4–5), while Emilia is more outspoken: “The more angel she / And thou the blacker devil” (V ii 131). Othello’s theatrical and problem atic suicide is a final re-enactment of a brutal “service” to the state, when another outsider, “a malignant and a turbaned Turk,” beat a Venetian and criticized Venice, whereupon I took by the throat the uncircumcised dog, And smote him thus. Although slave is rooted in slav, during the seventeenth century the term came to connote a black. Furthermore, slavery was increasingly regarded as an acceptable practice in Britain and its colonies, and in Restoration times it became quite fashionable to own Blackamoor slaves. It seems that the Quakers were the first religious group to object to slavery, in 1741. Socially there are some signs of genuine affection and attraction, although patronizing attitudes abound, and subsequent references are increasingly to black servants and slaves. Samuel Pepys, a considerable flirt, wrote affectionately on January 23, 1667, of “Mrs. Hall, which is my little Roman-nose black girl, that is mighty pretty,” while John Aubrey noted that Sir William Davenant “got a terrible clap of a Black handsome wench” and hints at a liaison between John Selden and “my Lady’s Shee Blackamore. Within the American provenance, by far the greatest lexicon of nicknames and ethnic slurs relates to blacks. In his major study, the Language of Ethnic Conflict (1983), Irving Lewis Allen lists some 240 such terms, arranged under eleven headings. The reclamation of Black as a positive and unifying term was part of the program of Black Consciousness during the 1960s (although the formulation originally referred to a religious movement in Jamaica in the 1930s). The movement generated the American se mantic correlatives Black Power (1966), Black Panther (1965), and Black Caucus (1967), re corded in this encounter; “When I tried to get into the black caucus, they said, ‘No peckerwoods allowed in here, Sonny’” (New York Times, September 7, 1967). All these for mulations were given wide currency in the writings of Eldridge Cleaver, Stokely Carmichael, and Malcolm X (Malcolm Little). In the United States perceived racial disloyalty is increasingly stigmatized among Blacks. The name became highly politicized, denoting segregationist legislation from 1904. Uncle Tom in the “disloyal” sense emerged still later, about 1921, seventy years after Harriet Beecher Stowe’s famous novel. In American literature, ethnic slurs for Blacks have continued to feature both in themselves and in effects on the critical reputations of important works. The entry for Mark Twain covers the continuing reactions to the term nigger in Huckleberry Finn.
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However medications japan travel purchase trecator sc paypal, also in some non-Westem cul tures symptoms 4 weeks pregnant generic 250mg trecator sc visa, anxiety has been found to 400 medications buy trecator sc american express be relatively common in individuals with gender dysphoria, even in cultures with accepting attitudes toward gender-variant behavior. Autism spec trum disorder is more prevalent in clinically referred children with gender dysphoria than in the general population. Clinically referred adolescents with gender dysphoria appear to have comorbid mental disorders, with anxiety and depressive disorders being the most common. As in children, autism spectrum disorder is more prevalent in clinically referred adolescents with gender dysphoria than in the general population. Clinically referred adults with gender dysphoria may have coexisting mental health problems, most commonly anxiety and depressive disorders. The other specified gender dysphoria category is used in situations in which the clinician chooses to communicate the specific reason that the presentation does not meet the criteria for gender dysphoria. This is done by recording “other specified gender dys phoria”followed by the specific reason. An example of a presentation that can be specified using the “other specified” desig nation is the following: the current disturbance meets symptom criteria for gender dysphoria, but the duration is iess than 6 months. The unspecified gender dysphoria category is used in situations in which the clinician chooses not to specify the reason that the criteria are not met for gender dyspho ria, and includes presentations in which there is insufficient information to make a more specific diagnosis. The underlying causes of the problems in the self-control of emotions and behaviors can vary greatly across the dis orders in this chapter and among individuals within a given diagnostic category. The chapter includes oppositional defiant disorder, intermittent explosive disorder, con duct disorder, antisocial personality disorder (which is described in the chapter 'Personality Disorders"), pyromania, kleptomania, and other specified and unspecified disruptive, im pulse-control, and conduct disorders. Although all the disorders in the chapter involve problems in both emotional and behavioral regulation, the source of variation among the disorders is the relative emphasis on problems in the two types of self-control. For example, the criteria for conduct disorder focus largely on poorly controlled behaviors that violate the rights of others or that violate major societal norms. At the other extreme, the criteria for intermittent explosive disorder focus largely on such poorly controlled emo tion, outbursts of anger that are disproportionate to the interpersonal or other provocation or to other psychosocial stressors. Intermediate in impact to these two disorders is opposi tional defiant disorder, in which the criteria are more evenly distributed between emotions (anger and irritation) and behaviors (argumentativeness and defiance). Pyromania and kleptomania are less commonly used diagnoses characterized by poor impulse control re lated to specific behaviors (fire setting or stealing) that relieve internal tension. Other speci fied disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorder is a category for conditions in which there are symptoms of conduct disorder, oppositional defiant disorder, or other disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders, but the number of symptoms does not meet ^e di agnostic threshold for any of the disorders in this chapter, even though there is evidence of clinically significant impairment associated with the symptoms. The disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders all tend to be more common in males than in females, although the relative degree of male predominance may differ both across disorders and within a disorder at different ages. The disorders in this chapter tend to have first onset in childhood or adolescence. In fact, it is very rare for either conduct disorder or oppositional defiant disorder to first emerge in adulthood. There is a developmental relation ship between oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder, in that most cases of con duct disorder previously would have met criteria for oppositional defiant disorder, at least in those cases in which conduct disorder emerges prior to adolescence. However, most children with oppositional defiant disorder do not eventually develop conduct disorder. Furthermore, children with oppositional defiant disorder are at risk for eventually developing other prob lems besides conduct disorder, including anxiety and depressive disorders. Many of the symptoms that define the disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disor ders are behaviors that can occur to some degree in typically developing individuals. The disruptive, impulse-control, and conduct disorders have been linked to a common externalizing spectrum associated with the personality dimensions labeled as disinhibition and (inversely) constraint and, to a lesser extent, negative emotionality. These shared per sonality dimensions could account for the high level of comorbidity among these disorders and their frequent comorbidity with substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder. However, the specific nature of the shared diathesis that constitutes the exter nalizing spectrum remains unknown. A pattern of angry/irritable mood, argumentative/defiant behavior, or vindictiveness lasting at least 6 months as evidenced by at least four symptoms from any of the following cate gories, and exhibited during interaction with at least one individual who is not a sibling. Often argues with authority figures or, for children and adolescents, with adults. Often actively defies or refuses to comply with requests from authority figures or with rules. Note: the persistence and frequency of these behaviors should be used to distinguish a behavior that is within normal limits from a behavior that is symptomatic. For children younger than 5 years, the behavior should occur on most days for a period of at least 6 months unless otherwise noted (Criterion A8).
The communication symptoms thyroid cancer purchase trecator sc now, coop stand social processes from the point of view eration treatment junctional tachycardia buy generic trecator sc 250 mg line, altruism medications when pregnant buy trecator sc 250 mg otc, and grouping together of brain functioning. Any group of people defned by culturally through the perspective of the interactions of recognized criteria such as Caucasians, con people’s thoughts and social behavior. Any alteration in one or more signifcant sonal characteristics relative to those of par aspects or relationships within a culture or ticular other people, who are called one’s ref subculture such as the alteration of U. A hostile or antagonistic clash between rural to urban settings during the latter part different social groups. Any large group within a society that share an economic level and usually have similar social constructionism status, prestige, power, customs, and values n. Several defnitions of social cognition have guage in which a person is raised and some been proposed. It the view that social cognition is the study of is further supposed that there is no point of (a) the factors that infuence the acquisition, view, including scientifc ones, which has uni representation, and retrieval of information versal validity. The rapid spread of ideas, attitudes, and cognition, each of which focuses on a differ behaviors through crowds of people and ent stage of information processing, address other social animals. The belief that social position refects one’s and the construction of complex mental biological ftness and that societies evolve 500 social desirability social impact theory through the survival of the fttest and are social emotions see self-conscious emo hampered by the survival of those who are tions not successful within the context of the soci ety. This point of view was rejected by Charles social exchange Darwin but gained widespread popularity in n. Any social interaction in which two or more Great Britain and the United States and was enter into a symbolic or real transaction with used to justify economic deprivation of the another person. It was also later used as the tions as exchanges of both tangible and intan theoretical basis for the eugenics movements gible rewards and punishments. Within this in the United States, Great Britain, and Nazi view people are believed to act to maximize Germany, in which sterilization of those their gains and minimize their losses though deemed by the wealthy and powerful includ mostly remaining within cultural norms of ing doctors to be unft members of society was reciprocity and equity. The degree to which a person, thing, of others increases the productivity of work or action is positively valued within a par ers in many circumstances. A bias in ticularly noticeable with relatively simple and self-presentation that leads people to behave well-learned tasks that do not require intense in ways they believe will be positively valued concentration, and productivity may decline within a particular culture or subculture, as the tasks are more demanding and less well which reduces the validity of self-reports and learned. The point of view which supposes that social development people’s understanding and valuation of n. The gradual acquisition of language, themselves as well as most of their behavior interpersonal understanding, and culturally derive from the attitudes and actions of those appropriate behavior patterns which make people around them with whom they identify up cultural competence in a given society. Any social psychological the ory that supposes that others infuence both social dilemma the public and the private sense of self. The confict between individual desires and the beneft or desires of others in many social impact theory situations. An understanding of social infuence that so that an individual benefts most if he/she supposes that persuasion, conformity, com acts selfshly while others act for the good of pliance, and obedience are obtained by a the group, while all lose if everyone acts self combination of (1) the social strength of the ishly and all beneft moderately if all act for person exerting control relative to the person the good of the group. A method of measuring intergroup atti how many sources and targets of infuence tudes by asking what distances would be there are in a given situation. The capacity to bring about change in attitudes, values, and belief systems, as well another’s thoughts, feelings, or behavior. The process of bringing about change in and performance of the person’s cultural eco another’s thoughts, feelings, or behavior. The people, institutions, and organizations sonal interactions by breaking them into that exist to help ensure that socialization parts and examining the interaction of the occurs. The parts are (a) encoding social clues, (b) mentally representing and interpret social justice ing the cues, (c) selecting desired outcomes, n. The idea that there is moral imperative in (d) searching memory for possible social any society to give each member of the society responses or formulation of new response fair treatment and a just share of the goods possibilities, (e) selecting a response, and (e) and benefts of the society. There are many acting out selected responses while monitor ideas about what constitutes fair treatment ing their effects. The set of abilities which allow an indi social learning vidual to adapt to the people around him n. The processes by which an individ or her through experience so as most easily ual acquires the capacities and knowledge to meet their needs and contribute to the necessary to cope with life successfully in well-being of the society of all people. In learning theory, Emotional intelligence, which includes the the process of acquiring socially effective capacities to perceive, appraise, and express behaviors including through observational one’s own emotions effectively as well as to learning. Social learning theory is a collection of theories that share the common goal of social interaction describing and explaining how the social n. Any process of mutual or reciprocal action environment infuences individuals’ behav or infuence among organisms, including but ior and how individuals affect their social not limited to cooperation, competition, con environment.
Such individuals have been arrested and charged for nonsexual antisocial behaviors medications and pregnancy buy generic trecator sc 250 mg on-line. The nearest diagnostic neighbor of fetishistic disorder is transves tic disorder symptoms ms order trecator sc from india. As noted in the diagnostic criteria symptoms kidney failure dogs purchase generic trecator sc on-line, fetishistic disorder is not diagnosed when fetish objects are limited to articles of clothing exclusively worn during cross-dressing (as in transvestic disorder), or when the object is genitally stimulating because it has been de signed for that purpose. Fetishes can co-occur with other paraphilic disorders, especially "sadomasochism" and transvestic disorder. When an individual fantasizes about or engages in "forced cross-dressing" and is primarily sex ually aroused by the domination or humiliation associated with such fantasy or repetitive activity, the diagnosis of sexual masochism disorder should be made. Use of a fetish object for sexual arousal without any associated distress or psychosocial role impairment or other adverse conse quence would not meet criteria for fetishistic disorder, as the threshold required by Crite rion B would not be met. For example, an individual whose sexual partner either shares or can successfully incorporate his interest in caressing, smelling, or licking feet or toes as an important element of foreplay would not be diagnosed with fetishistic disorder; nor would an individual who prefers, and is not distressed or impaired by, solitary sexual be havior associated with wearing rubber garments or leather boots. Comorbidity Fetishistic disorder may co-occur with other paraphilic disorders as well as hypersexual ity. Over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent and intense sexual arousal from cross dressing, as manifested by fantasies, urges, or behaviors. Specify if: With fetishism: If sexually aroused by fabrics, materials, or garments. Specify if: in a controiied environment: this specifier is primarily applicable to individuals living in institutional or other settings where opportunities to cross-dress are restricted, in fuii remission: There has been no distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning for at least 5 years while in an uncontrolled environment. Specifiers the presence of fetishism decreases the likelihood of gender dysphoria in men with trans vestic disorder. The presence of autogynephilia increases the likelihood of gender dyspho ria in men with transvestic disorder. Diagnostic Features the diagnosis of transvestic disorder does not apply to all individuals who dress as the op posite sex, even those who do so habitually. It applies to individuals whose cross-dressing or thoughts of cross-dressing are always or often accompanied by sexual excitement (Cri terion A) and who are emotionally distressed by this pattern or feel it impairs social or in terpersonal functioning (Criterion B). Sexual arousal, in its most obvious form of penile erection, may co-occur with cross-dressing in various ways. In younger males, cross-dressing often leads to masturbation, following which any female clothing is removed. Older males often leam to avoid masturbating or doing anything to stimulate the penis so that the avoidance of ejaculation allows them to prolong their cross-dressing session. Males with female part ners sometimes complete a cross-dressing session by having intercourse with their part ners, and some have difficulty maintaining a sufficient erection for intercourse without cross-dressing (or private fantasies of cross-dressing). The pattern of behav ior "purging and acquisition" often signifies the presence of distress in individuals with transvestic disorder. Associated Features Supporting Diagnosis Transvestic disorder in men is often accompanied by autogynephilia. Autogynephilic fantasies and behaviors may focus on the idea of exhibiting female phys iological functions. The percentage of individuals who have cross dressed with sexual arousal more than once or a few times in their lifetimes would be even lower. The majority of males with transvestic disorder identify as heterosexual, although some individuals have occasional sexual interaction with other males, especially when they are cross-dressed. Prior to puberty, cross-dress ing produces generalized feelings of pleasurable excitement. In many cases, cross-dressing elicits less and less sexual ex citement as the individual grows older; eventually it may produce no discernible penile response at all. The desire to cross-dress, at the same time, remains the same or grows even stronger. Individuals who report such a diminution of sexual response typically report that the sexual excitement of cross-dressing has been replaced by feelings of comfort or well-being. In some cases, the course of transvestic disorder is continuous, and in others it is epi sodic.
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